15 Biology Tutorials

These Biology tutorials are written by experienced educators, all of whom also offer private tutoring lessons. Get the Biology help you need, whether through these tutorials or through private tutoring lessons.

Concentrations

The concentration of a solution is usually expressed as 1M, or 1 mole/L, where one mole is is the formula weight (grams) of a molecule dissolved in one liter of water at standard temperature and pressure. The capital M can be expressed as mM (millimoles), uM (micromoles), nM (nanomoles) and smaller. Concentration is sometimes expressed…

What is Really Going on in Mitosis and Meiosis?

Mitosis and meiosis are processes repeatedly visited in biology, and both are important for understanding Mendelian inheritance patterns. These two processes are made up of four basic stages – prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. It may be simple enough to memorize these names, but what really matters is understanding what happens to the chromosomes in…

Decoding Pedigrees Made Easy!

At first, pedigree charts may appear both challenging and time-consuming to decipher. However, knowing a few simple rules about them makes interpreting them much easier! Pedigrees are records of mating over generations. They are often used to help identify the chances that a couple will pass a condition on to their children. They can also…

Protein Synthesis

How do we make the proteins we need to live? You may recall that DNA codes for proteins, that is, the sequence of the DNA nucleotides has the directions to make every protein we must have. In high school biology, you will be given a sequence of DNA bases and a codon chart with the…

Genetics: Non-Mendelian Traits

Genetics is the study of genes from one generation to the next. Gregor Mendel is the Father of Genetics, and his experiments with pea plants provided insight into how traits pass from parents to offspring. We now know that our chromosomes, which are made of DNA, work in pairs. That means that for any gene,…

Genetics: Mendelian Traits

Genetics is the study of how traits appear in different generations. A trait can be any characteristic, as long as it is inherited. Hair color, eye color, and colorblindness are all genetic. Height is affected by genetics. Something like a tattoo is not inheritable and is not a genetic trait. Gregor Mendel, a monk living…

Bias? What bias?

In scientific experiments, scientists must be careful to eliminate bias from their studies. Bias is a preference for a result that may or may not be accurate. It may be intentional or unintentional. It can appear in the design of an experiment, the selection of a sample, the recording of the data, the analysis of…

Genetics: Sex-Linked Traits

In the study of genetics, one mode of non-Mendelian inheritance is sex-linked. This occurs when the gene or genes in question are on the X chromosome (and sometimes on the y chromosome). Remember, we humans have 46 chromosomes existing in pairs. The 23rd pair are sex chromosomes. In general, women have XX, and men have…

punnett squares

The two things a Punnett square can tell you are the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. A genotype is the genetic makeup of the organism. This is shown by the three genetic conditions described as(BB, Bb, bb) and phenotype is the trait those genes express. How do you fill out punnett squares?

Microbiology

What is microbiology? What does it entail and what is the reason or importance for the study of micro biology.

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