Spelling pattern 2: Doubling (or 1-1-1) pattern

Dyslexia Tutorial

Spelling pattern 2: Doubling (or 1-1-1) pattern


Students with dyslexia often need explicit instruction in spelling and require repeated practice for mastery. Trained teachers/ therapists know to give ample practice opportunities in reading before introducing the spelling concept. The Doubling or 1-1-1 pattern is the second of five major spelling patterns.

The Doubling or 1-1-1 pattern involves the addition of suffixes. A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a base word that changes its meaning or usage. Suffixes are categorized as vowel suffixes or consonant suffixes, depending on whether the suffix starts with a vowel or consonant. Vowel suffixes require extra attention as they are being added to the base word.

Examples of vowel suffixes: -ing, -er, -ed

The Doubling or 1-1-1 pattern:
When adding a vowel suffix to a base word that has
1 syllable,
1 short vowel, and
1 final consonant,
double the final consonant.

tap + ing >> tapping
strum + ed >> strummed
sled + ing >> sledding
bump + ed >> bumped
feeling >> feeling

Sample Problem

Add the suffix to the base word. Explain your spelling choice.

1. stop + ed
2. stomp + ed
3. slip + ing
4. sleep + ing
5. open + er


1. stop + ed >> stopped
Doubling rule applies.

2. stomp + ed >> stomped
Two final consonants in base word. Doubling rule does not apply.

3. slip + ing >> slipping
Doubling rule applies.

4. sleep + ing >> sleeping
Long vowel in base word. Doubling rule does not apply.

5. open + er >> opener
Two syllable base word. Doubling rule does not apply.

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